Find links to peer-reviewed research on coconut oil, virgin coconut oil, medium chain fatty acids, and lauric acid

Abstracts from Peer Reviewed Literature on Coconut Oil and Derivatives

Virgin Coconut Oil

Virgin Coconut Oil Alleviates Dextran Sulphate-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Modulates Inflammation and Immune Response in Mice
Journal of the American Nutrition Association. 2023 October.

Virgin Coconut Oil: A Dietary Intervention for Dyslipidaemia in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients. 2023 Jan

Favorable Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil on Neuronal Damage and Mortality after a Stroke Incidence in the Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat
Life (Basel) 2022 Nov

Protective Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil on Osteopenia Induced by High Refined Carbohydrate-Containing Diet in Mice
Foods. 2022 Sep 11

Virgin Coconut Oil as a New Concept for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration via Expressions of TNF- α and TGF- β 1
Int J Biomater. 2022 Feb

Virgin coconut oil abrogates depression-associated cognitive deficits by modulating hippocampal antioxidant balance, GABAergic and glutamatergic receptors in mice
Drug Metab Pers Ther. 2021 Dec

Virgin coconut oil is effective in lowering C-reactive protein levels among suspect and probable cases of COVID-19
J Funct Foods. 2021 Aug

Variations in natural polyphenols determine the anti-inflammatory potential of virgin coconut oils
J Food Sci. 2021 May

Neurochemical, neurobehavioral and histochemical effects of therapeutic dose of l-dopa on striatal neurons in rats: Protective effect of virgin coconut oil
Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Oct

Antioxidant Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil on Urea and Creatinine Levels on Maximum Physical Activity
Maced J Med Sci. 2019 Nov 14

The protective role of virgin coconut oil on the alloxan-induced oxidative stress in the liver, kidneys and heart of diabetic rats.
Food Funct. 2019 Mar 28.

Virgin coconut oil is effective to treat metabolic and inflammatory dysfunction induced by high refined carbohydrate-containing diet in mice.
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry Volume 63, January 2019

Beneficial Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes and Microbiota Composition in Rats.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2018 Dec

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-β induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat
Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 May 2

Virgin coconut oil extract mitigates testicular-induced toxicity of alcohol use in antiretroviral therapy.
Andrology. 2018 Apr 14

Polyphenols isolated from virgin coconut oil attenuate cadmium-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress due to their antioxidant properties and potential benefits on cardiovascular risk ratios in rats
Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018 Jan-Feb

Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of virgin coconut oil supplementation abrogate acute chemotherapy oxidative nephrotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate in rats.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Dec 7

Repeatedly heated palm kernel oil induces hyperlipidemia, atherogenic indices and hepatorenal toxicity in rats: Beneficial role of virgin coconut oil supplementation
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2017 Oct-Dec

Angiogenic and wound healing potency of fermented virgin coconut oil: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Am J Transl Res. 2017 Nov 15

Dietary Supplementation with Virgin Coconut Oil Improves Lipid Profile and Hepatic Antioxidant Status and Has Potential Benefits on Cardiovascular Risk Indices in Normal Rats
Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2017 Aug 17

Virgin coconut oil supplementation attenuates acute chemotherapy hepatotoxicity induced by anticancer drug methotrexate via inhibition of oxidative stress in rats.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jan 6

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.
Inflammopharmacology. 2016 Nov 22.

Renoprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Oct

Virgin coconut oil maintains redox status and improves glycemic conditions in high fructose fed rats.
J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jan

Polyphenolics isolated from virgin coconut oil inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis in rats through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2014 Mar 5

Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats – a comparative study.
Food Funct. 2013 Jul 29

Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats–compared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil.
Indian J Exp Biol. 2012 Nov;50(11):802-9.

Virgin coconut oil supplementation prevents bone loss in osteoporosis rat model
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:237236. Epub 2012 Sep 16.

An open-label pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of virgin coconut oil in reducing visceral adiposity.
ISRN Pharmacol. 2011;2011:949686. Epub 2011 Mar 15.

In vivo Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Dried and Fermented Processed Virgin Coconut Oil 
Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(3):231-6. Epub 2011 Mar 29.

Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 142739

Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.
Pharm Biol. 2010 Feb;48(2):151-7.

Wet and dry extraction of coconut oil: impact on lipid metabolic and antioxidant status in cholesterol coadministered rats.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;87(8):610-6.

Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2009;60 Suppl 2:114-23. Epub 2008 Dec 27.

Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation.
Clin Biochem. 2004 Sep;37(9):830-5.

Coconut Oil

Lipid Profile in Multiple Sclerosis: Functional Capacity and Therapeutic Potential of Its Regulation after Intervention with Epigallocatechin Gallate and Coconut Oil
Foods. 2023 October.

Antimicrobial Potential of Cocos nucifera (Coconut) Oil on Bacterial Isolates
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2023 Aug 19

Coconut Oil and Immunity: What Do We Really Know About It So Far?
Journal of The Association of Physicians in India. 2020 Jul;68(7):67-72.

Potential of coconut oil and medium chain triglycerides in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. Volume 186, March 2020, 111209

Coconut oil protects against light-induced retina degeneration in male Wistar rats
Pathophysiology. March 2019 Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 89–95

Coconut oil consumption improves fat-free mass, plasma HDL-cholesterol and insulin sensitivity in healthy men with normal BMI compared to peanut oil.
Clin Nutr. 2018 Dec 29.

Improvement of Main Cognitive Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease after Treatment with Coconut Oil Enriched Mediterranean Diet: A Pilot Study.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2018

Effects of natural products on several stages of the spore cycle of Clostridium difficile in vitro.
J Appl Microbiol. 2018 Apr 19

Comparative Evaluation of Antiplaque Efficacy of Coconut Oil Pulling and a Placebo, Among Dental College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Sep

Coconut phytocompounds inhibits polyol pathway enzymes: Implication in prevention of microvascular diabetic complications
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017 Dec

The Effect of Coconut Oil pulling on Streptococcus mutans Count in Saliva in Comparison with Chlorhexidine Mouthwash.
J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016 Jan

Nutr Hosp. 2015 Dec 1

An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut.
Ceylon Med J. 2015 Sept

Aluminum phosphide poisoning: Possible role of supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote
Indian J Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb; 19

Coconut Oil Attenuates the Effects of Amyloid-β on Cortical Neurons In Vitro.
J Alzheimers Dis. 2013 Oct 22.

Coconut Oil Enhances Tomato Carotenoid Tissue Accumulation Compared to Safflower Oil in the Mongolian Gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).
J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Aug 16.

Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue of Coconut Oil-Fed Mice but not Soy Oil-Fed Mice.
Lipids. 2011 Jun 4

Dietary fatty acids and oxidative stress in the heart mitochondria.
Mitochondrion. 2010 Aug 5.

Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil on the Biochemical and Anthropometric Profiles of Women Presenting Abdominal Obesity
Lipids. 2009 May 13.

In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.
J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):384-7.

Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation.
Clin Biochem. 2004 Sep;37(9):830-5.

A diet rich in coconut oil reduces diurnal postprandial variations in circulating tissue plasminogen activator antigen and fasting lipoprotein (a) compared with a diet rich in unsaturated fat in women.
J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3422-7.

COCONUT OIL: Atherogenic or Not?
(What therefore causes Atherosclerosis?)

By Conrado S. Dayrit, MD. FACC. FPCC. FPCP

Philippine Journal Of CARDIOLOGY
July-September 2003, Volume 31 Number 3:97-104

Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency.
 Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 Oct 15;1737(1):52-60. Epub 2005 Sep 13.

Successful treatment of acute aluminium phosphide poisoning: possible benefit of coconut oil.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005 Apr;24(4):215-8.

Cholesterol, coconuts, and diet on Polynesian atolls: a natural experiment: the Pukapuka and Tokelau island studies.
Am J Clin Nutr 1981 Aug;34(8):1552-61

Choice of cooking oils–myths and realities.
J Indian Med Assoc 1998 Oct;96(10):304-7

The role of coconut and coconut oil in coronary heart disease in Kerala, south India.
Trop Doct. 1997 Oct;27(4):215-7.

Coconut oil compound may treat STDs
AIDS Patient Care STDS 1999 Sep;13(9):572

Chirurg 2002 Apr;73(4):387-92
Coconut oil used in Indonesia for treatment of wounds and to preserve medicinal herbs

Energy restriction with high-fat diet enriched with coconut oil gives higher UCP1 and lower white fat in rats.
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Oct;22(10):974-9.

Intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome without tube feeding or home parenteral nutrition: report of four consecutive cases.
Nutrition. 1998 Jun;14(6):508-12.

Coconut Oil and Skin

Virgin coconut oil as prophylactic therapy against alcohol damage on skin in COVID times
J Cosmet Dermatol. 2021 Aug

Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil Application on the Skin of Preterm Newborns: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
J Trop Pediatr. 2019 Jun 29.

Dietary coconut oil ameliorates skin contact hypersensitivity through mead acid production in mice.
Allergy. 2019 Mar 6.

In vitro anti-inflammatory and skin protective properties of Virgin coconut oil
J Tradit Complement Med. 2019 Jan

The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.
Int J Dermatol. 2013 Dec 10.

Development and Anti-microbial Potential of Topical Formulations Containing Cocos nucifera Linn.
Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun 4

Effect of topical application of virgin coconut oil on skin components and antioxidant status during dermal wound healing in young rats.
Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2010;23(6):290-7. Epub 2010 Jun 3.

Antimicrobial Property of Lauric Acid Against Propionibacterium Acnes: Its Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris.
J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Apr 23

Novel antibacterial and emollient effects of coconut and virgin olive oils in adult atopic dermatitis.
Dermatitis. 2008 Nov-Dec

Oil massage in neonates: an open randomized controlled study of coconut versus mineral oil.
Indian Pediatr. 2005 Sep;42(9):877-84.

Uptake of vitamin E succinate by the skin, conversion to free vitamin E, and transport to internal organs.
Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1999 Mar;47(3):509-18.

Coconut Oil and Hair

Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation
Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Jan;169(1):55-62.

Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage.
J Cosmet Sci. 2003 Mar-Apr;54(2):175-92

Secondary ion mass spectrometric investigation of penetration of coconut and mineral oils into human hair fibers: Relevance to hair damage
J Cosmet. Sci., 52, 169-184 (May/June 2001)

Lauric Acid/Monolaurin

Lauric acid improves hormonal profiles, antioxidant properties, sperm quality and histomorphometric changes in testis and epididymis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic infertility rats
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2023 Jul

Dual Roles of Coconut Oil and Its Major Component Lauric Acid on Redox Nexus: Focus on Cytoprotection and Cancer Cell Death
Front Neurosci. 2022 Mar

Laurine fatty acids, medium fatty acids and triglycerides, hyperlipidemia, resistance to insulin, prevention of atherosclerosis and ateromatosis.
Klin Lab Diagn. 2019;64(2):68-77.

Lauric Acid Alleviates Neuroinflammatory Responses by Activated Microglia: Involvement of the GPR40-Dependent Pathway.
Neurochem Res. 2018 Jun 26.

The lauric acid-activated signaling prompts apoptosis in cancer cells 
Cell Death Discovery, 2017 Sep 18

Acute Treatment with Lauric Acid Reduces Blood Pressure and Oxidative Stress in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016 Nov 7

In Vitro Anti-Propionibacterium Activity by Curcumin Containing
Vesicle System

“Our results highlight the potential of using vehicles containing lauric acid and curcumin as an alternative treatment for acne vulgaris.”
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo). 2013;61(4):419-25.

Effect of saturated fatty acid-rich dietary vegetable oils on lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and glucose tolerance in diabetic rats.
Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun;42(3):142-5.

Glycerol monolaurate inhibits Candida and Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro and in vivo but not Lactobacillus. 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Feb;54(2):597-601

Antibacterial study of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides: individual effects and synergistic relationships. 
Pol J Microbiol. 2009;58(1):43-7.

Glycerol monolaurate prevents mucosal SIV transmission. 
Nature. 2009 Apr 23;458(7241):1034-8.

Antimicrobial activity of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid against microorganisms associated with poultry processing.
J Food Prot. 2006 Jul;69(7):1611-5.

Effect of fatty acid chain length on suppression of ghrelin and stimulation of PYY, GLP-2 and PP secretion in healthy men.
Peptides. 2006 Jul;27(7):1638-43. Epub 2006 Mar 23.

Glycerol monolaurate inhibits virulence factor production in Bacillus anthracis. 
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Apr;49(4):1302-5.

Consumption of a Solid Fat Rich in Lauric Acid Results in a More Favorable Serum Lipid Profile in Healthy Men and Women than Consumption of a Solid Fat Rich in trans-Fatty Acids
Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131:242-245

Effect of fatty acids on arenavirus replication: inhibition of virus production by lauric acid
Arch Virol 2001;146(4):777-90

Lauric acid inhibits the maturation of vesicular stomatitis virus.
J Gen Virol. 1994 Feb;75 ( Pt 2):353-61.

MCTs (Medium Chain Triglycerides)

Contrasting metabolic effects of medium- versus long-chain fatty acids in skeletal muscle.
J Lipid Res. 2013 Dec;54(12)

Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of capric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: A comparative study with lauric acid.
J Dermatol Sci. 2013 Nov 7. pii: S0923-1811

Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets.
Biomed J. 2013 Jan;36(1):9-15

Inhibition of Candida mycelia growth by a medium chain fatty acids, capric acid in vitoro and its therapeutic efficacy in murine oral candidiasis
Med Mycol J. 2012;53(4):255-61.

Caprylic Triglyceride as a Novel Therapeutic Approach to Effectively Improve the Performance and Attenuate the Symptoms Due to the Motor Neuron Loss in ALS Disease
PLoS ONE 7(11): e49191. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049191 (2012)

Combined medium-chain triglyceride and chilli feeding increases diet-induced thermogenesis in normal-weight humans.
Eur J Nutr. 2012 Nov 20.

Sophorolipid production by Candida bombicola on oils with a special fatty acid composition and their consequences on cell viability.
Biotechnol Lett. 2010 Oct;32(10):1509-14

Enhancement of muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacity and alterations in insulin action are lipid species dependent: potent tissue-specific effects of medium-chain fatty acids.
Diabetes. 2010 May;59(5):1283.

Medium-chain fatty acids improve cognitive function in intensively treated type 1 diabetic patients and support in vitro synaptic transmission during acute hypoglycemia.
 Diabetes. 2009 May;58(5):1237-44.

Effect of ingestion of medium-chain triacylglycerols on moderate- and high-intensity exercise in recreational athletes.
 J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2009 Apr;55(2):120-5.

Partial replacement of dietary (n-6) fatty acids with medium-chain triglycerides decreases the incidence of spontaneous colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.
J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):603-10.

Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on cognition in memory-impaired adults. (Applies to Alzheimer’s)
Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Mar;25(3):311-4.

Consumption of an oil composed of medium chain triacyglycerols, phytosterols, and N-3 fatty acids improves cardiovascular risk profile in overweight women.
Metabolism. 2003 Jun;52(6):771-7.

Medium-Chain Oil Reduces Fat Mass and Down-regulates Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Rats.
Obes Res. 2003 Jun;11(6):734-44.

An enteral therapy containing medium-chain triglycerides and hydrolyzed peptides reduces postprandial pain associated with chronic pancreatitis.
Pancreatology. 2003;3(1):36-40.

Protective effects of medium-chain triglycerides on the liver and gut in rats administered endotoxin.
Ann Surg. 2003 Feb;237(2):246-55.

Medium-chain triglycerides increase energy expenditure and decrease adiposity in overweight men.
Obes Res. 2003 Mar;11(3):395-402.

Larger diet-induced thermogenesis and less body fat accumulation in rats fed medium-chain triacylglycerols than in those fed long-chain triacylglycerols.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Dec;48(6):524-9.

Comparison of diet-induced thermogenesis of foods containing medium- versus long-chain triacylglycerols.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Dec;48(6):536-40.

Enteral nutrition in Crohn’s disease: fat in the formula.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003 Feb;15(2):115-8.

Protective effects of medium-chain triglycerides on the liver and gut in rats administered endotoxin.
Ann Surg. 2003 Feb;237(2):246-55.

The influence of a preserved colon on the absorption of medium chain fat in patients with small bowel resection.
Gut. 1998 Oct;43(4):478-83.

Effects of intravenous supplementation with alpha-tocopherol in patients receiving total parenteral nutrition containing medium- and long-chain triglycerides
Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Feb;56(2):121-8

Killing of Gram-positive cocci by fatty acids and monoglycerides
APMIS 2001 Oct;109(10):670-8

Physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides: potential agents in the prevention of obesity.
J Nutr 2002 Mar;132(3):329-32

Value of VLCD supplementation with medium chain triglycerides
Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001 Sep;25(9):1393-400

In vitro killing of Candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001 Nov;45(11):3209-12

Decreased fat and nitrogen losses in patients with AIDS receiving medium-chain-triglyceride-enriched formula vs those receiving long-chain-triglyceride-containing formula.
Am Diet Assoc. 1997 Jun;97(6):605-11

Effects of different lipid sources in total parenteral nutrition on whole body protein kinetics and tumor growth.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1992 Nov-Dec;16(6):545-51

Enhanced thermogenesis and diminished deposition of fat in response to overfeeding with diet containing medium chain triglyceride.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1982 Apr;35(4):678-82

Thermogenesis in humans during overfeeding with medium-chain triglycerides.
Metabolism. 1989 Jul;38(7):641-8